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According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) a mountain is a very large and high hill (usually more than 600 m high). Meanwhile, a hill is a pile of land that is higher than the surrounding area and lower than a mountain.

According to Britannica, a mountain is a landform that stands out above its surroundings, generally showing steep slopes, a relatively limited peak area, and considerable local relief. Mountains are generally understood to be larger than hills, but the term has no standard geological meaning. It is also said that mountains very rarely appear individually. However, in most cases, it is found in an elongated range or chain.

Each mountain is connected by mountains and separated by valleys. Within many mountain belts are plateaus, which stand high but contain little relief. Mountain belts are tens to hundreds of kilometers wide and hundreds to thousands of kilometers long.

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Based on the data from the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History Global Volcanic Program, Indonesia is in third place as a country that has many active volcanoes and has been declared the area with the most volcanoes in the world. These volcanoes include Marapi, Krakatau, Merapi, Lewotolok, Karangetang, Semeru, Ibu, and Dukono.

As stated in a report published by the Center for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi), Indonesia has a total of 127 active volcanoes with a total of 69 volcanic mountains which are continuously monitored by PVMBG.

Still based on data from the Center for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation, mountains in Indonesia are divided into three types of categories. That is:

1. Type A volcanoes, numbering 76. These are volcanoes that have historical records of eruptions since 1600.

2. Type B volcanoes, numbering 30. These are volcanoes that have historical records of eruptions before 1600.

3. Type C volcanoes, numbering 21. These are volcanoes that have no historical record of eruptions but still show traces of volcanic activity, such as solfatara or fumarole.

Highest Mountain in Indonesia

Mount Puncak Jaya Wijaya, which is located in the Sudirman Range, highlands of Mimika district, Central Papua, is the highest mountain in Indonesia with a height that can reach up to 4,884 meters. Also known as Carstensz Pyramid or Nemangkawi Ninggok in the Amungme and Amungkal dialects. This mountain is a limestone mountain which thanks to its height can produce eternal snow.

Lowest Mountain in Indonesia

Mount Halau - Halau also known as Gunung Besar is the lowest mountain in Indonesia with a height of only 1,901 m. This mountain is located on the border of three districts, namely Hulu Sungai Tengah Regency, Hulu Sungai Selatan Regency, and Tanah Bumbu Regency in South Kalimantan Province.

Mount Halau - Halau is a mountain that is sacred to the Meratus Dayak people, so climbing to the top of this mountain must comply with local customs. This mountain is also part of the peaks of the Meratus (Denny Susanto) Mountains.


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